Weekly Links: OSM on AWS, Fulcrum Editor, & Real-time Drone Maps

April 21, 2017 • #

Querying OpenStreetMap with Amazon Athena 🗺

Using Amazon’s Athena service, you can now interactively query OpenStreetMap data right from an interactive console. No need to use the complicated OSM API, this is pure SQL. I’ve taken a stab at building out a replica OSM database before and it’s a beast. The dataset now clocks in at 56 GB zipped. This post from Seth Fitzsimmons gives a great overview of what you can do with it:

Working with “the planet” (as the data archives are referred to) can be unwieldy. Because it contains data spanning the entire world, the size of a single archive is on the order of 50 GB. The format is bespoke and extremely specific to OSM. The data is incredibly rich, interesting, and useful, but the size, format, and tooling can often make it very difficult to even start the process of asking complex questions.

Heavy users of OSM data typically download the raw data and import it into their own systems, tailored for their individual use cases, such as map rendering, driving directions, or general analysis. Now that OSM data is available in the Apache ORC format on Amazon S3, it’s possible to query the data using Athena without even downloading it.

Introducing the New Fulcrum Editor 🔺

Personal plug here, this is something that’s been in the works for months. We just launched Editor, the completely overhauled data editing toolset in Fulcrum. I can’t wait for the follow up post to explain the nuts and bolts of how this is put together. The power and flexibility is truly amazing.

Real-time Drone Mapping with FieldScanner 🚁

The team at DroneDeploy just launched the first live aerial imagery product for drones. Pilots can now fly imagery and get a live, processed, mosaicked result right on a tablet immediately when their mission is completed. This is truly next level stuff for the burgeoning drone market:

The poor connectivity and slow internet speeds that have long posed a challenge for mapping in remote areas don’t hamper Fieldscanner. Designed for use the fields, Fieldscanner can operate entirely offline, with no need for cellular or data coverage. Fieldscanner uses DroneDeploy’s existing automatic flight planning for DJI drones and adds local processing on the drone and mobile device to create a low-resolution Fieldscan as the drone is flying, instead of requiring you to process imagery into a map at a computer after the flight.

Mavic Pro First Impressions

April 19, 2017 • #

I bought a Mavic Pro a couple weeks ago and just got a chance to take my first flights this past weekend. In short, it’s the most impressive technology product I’ve used in years. I’ve never owned any drone, so this is pretty cool for someone in the mapping industry. Let’s dive in.

Mavic Pro

Since going out to fly aerial mapping missions with some partners of ours a couple months back, I wanted to buy one of DJI’s drones — either the larger Phantom 4 Pro, or the smaller Mavic. Extensive research led me to the portability and almost-equivalent technical specs of the Mavic over the P4. It’s so close in most of its capabilities, but the compactness of it is remarkable. I got the kit with the carrying bag, and it’s so small you could literally take it anywhere. I love the prospect of having this as a photography platform while traveling.

I did my first test flight in the backyard, plopped it down on the patio and kicked on the drone and remote control. Everything linked up right away and the DJI Go app was “Ready to Fly”. It’s so simple it seems like you’re doing something wrong. It feels like there should be more configuration. As long as you’ve got a clear GPS signal and you’re in “beginner” mode, you can just take off.

My first reaction was how easy it is to fly. You don’t have to do anything and the drone just hovers. Let go of the controls at any time and it stays put. The controller sensitivity feels smooth and intuitive; I was strafing sideways, rotating, and descending to create cool sweeping shots within 2 minutes. With a little practice you could do pro-level photography with this. Landing was just as easy: you descend where you want to land and as you approach the ground the drone halts at about 18” using its collision detection sensors. With another long hold on the left stick, it initiates the landing sequence and slowly touches down. I also tried the “Return to Home” feature, which is enabled as long as you let the drone get a good locked home location before takeoff. It’s so cool to see it work. The drone can be away from you and when you tap Return to Home on the app, the drone comes home and makes a smooth and careful landing. In a couple of tests it came home and landed in a 5-10 foot radius from the takeoff point.

Next is the software. The DJI Go app is what you use when you dock your device with the controller to get the live video, heads-up display, and settings controls, and it’s an amazing piece of software. I hadn’t used earlier versions, but in version 4, you can control everything from the app. The video feed from the drone and the HUD view of all the needed metrics looks great (altitude, bearing, distance). Triggers on the sides of the remote snap photos and start recording video. DJI has honed the system down to the simplicity of a video game. I’ve only done a couple of flights, but the video and photo quality is excellent. 4K video from this tiny airframe and camera is a stunning feat.

One of my flights was in about 15 knot winds, and the little guy held up well. The camera’s gimbal was rock steady even in breezy conditions. I noticed a tiny bit of jitter when flying into the teeth of the wind, but not enough to make a difference. I flew one mission of aerial imagery with DroneDeploy, but will dive deeper on that in a future post when I can do more flights.

A few other things on the docket to try:

  • Object detection and tracking — you can lock onto a moving object and the drone and camera will follow. When I find a use case for it I’ll try it out and report back. Looks neat from videos I’ve seen.
  • Flying at high altitude — so far I haven’t gone above about 150 feet.
  • Flying at longer ranges — haven’t yet gone farther than a few hundred yards away, but the range on this thing is huge. When I get more confident with it I’d like to do some longer flights for cool video. Thinking about our Florida Keys trip to Marathon in June!

Weekly Links: Tensor Processing, Amazon, and Preventing Traffic Jams

April 13, 2017 • #

Google’s “Tensor Processing Unit” 💻

Google has built their own custom silicon dedicated to AI processing. The power efficiency gains with these dedicated chips is estimated to have saved them from building a dozen new datacenters.

But about six years ago, as the company embraced a new form of voice recognition on Android phones, its engineers worried that this network wasn’t nearly big enough. If each of the world’s Android phones used the new Google voice search for just three minutes a day, these engineers realized, the company would need twice as many data centers.

Jeff Bezos’ Annual Letter to Shareholders 📃

An excellent read. Their philosophy of experimentation comes through. I liked this bit, on the “velocity” of decision making:

Day 2 companies make high-quality decisions, but they make high-quality decisions slowly. To keep the energy and dynamism of Day 1, you have to somehow make high-quality, high-velocity decisions. Easy for start-ups and very challenging for large organizations. The senior team at Amazon is determined to keep our decision-making velocity high. Speed matters in business – plus a high-velocity decision making environment is more fun too. We don’t know all the answers, but here are some thoughts.

First, never use a one-size-fits-all decision-making process. Many decisions are reversible, two-way doors. Those decisions can use a light-weight process. For those, so what if you’re wrong? I wrote about this in more detail in last year’s letter.

Second, most decisions should probably be made with somewhere around 70% of the information you wish you had. If you wait for 90%, in most cases, you’re probably being slow. Plus, either way, you need to be good at quickly recognizing and correcting bad decisions. If you’re good at course correcting, being wrong may be less costly than you think, whereas being slow is going to be expensive for sure.

How not to create traffic jams, pollution and urban sprawl 🚘

The Economist analyzes the state of parking economics. The gist: free or low-cost parking equals congestion and more drivers roaming for longer. Some great statistics in this piece:

As San Francisco’s infuriated drivers cruise around, they crowd the roads and pollute the air. This is a widespread hidden cost of under-priced street parking. Mr. Shoup has estimated that cruising for spaces in Westwood village, in Los Angeles, amounts to 950,000 excess vehicle miles travelled per year. Westwood is tiny, with only 470 metered spaces.

Weekly Links: Cars, AI Doctors, and the Mac Pro's Future

April 6, 2017 • #

Cars and Second Order Consequences 🚙

The cascading effect of a world with no human drivers is my favorite “what if” to consider with the boom of electric, autonomous car development. Benedict Evans has a great analysis postulating several tangential effects:

However, it’s also useful, and perhaps more challenging, to think about the second and third order consequences of these two technology changes. Moving to electric means much more than replacing the gas tank with a battery, and moving to autonomy means much more than ending accidents. Quite what those consequences would be is much harder to predict: as the saying goes, it was easy to predict mass car ownership but hard to predict Walmart, and the broader consequences of the move to electric and autonomy will come in some very widely-spread industries, in complex interlocked ways.

A.I. versus M.D. 💊

Siddhartha Mukherjee looks at the potential for AI in medicine, specifically as a diagnostic tool. Combine processing and machine learning with sensors everywhere, and things get interesting:

Thrun blithely envisages a world in which we’re constantly under diagnostic surveillance. Our cell phones would analyze shifting speech patterns to diagnose Alzheimer’s. A steering wheel would pick up incipient Parkinson’s through small hesitations and tremors. A bathtub would perform sequential scans as you bathe, via harmless ultrasound or magnetic resonance, to determine whether there’s a new mass in an ovary that requires investigation. Big Data would watch, record, and evaluate you: we would shuttle from the grasp of one algorithm to the next. To enter Thrun’s world of bathtubs and steering wheels is to enter a hall of diagnostic mirrors, each urging more tests.

This piece is one of the best explanations of neural networks I’ve read.

The Mac Pro Lives

If you follow the Apple universe, you’ve surely heard the frustration of professional Mac users who’ve felt abandoned by Apple neglecting their pro hardware for 3 years. They’re resurrecting the lineup now with a redesigned Mac Pro. The craziest bit about this story is that Apple is coming out of the shell to talk about a new product months before launch, to a handful of select journalists.

Kindle

April 4, 2017 • #

A couple years ago I bought a Kindle Paperwhite, after moving almost exclusively to ebooks when the Kindle iPhone app launched with the App Store. I read constantly, and always digital books, so I thought I’d write up some thoughts on the Kindle versus its app-based counterparts like the Kindle apps, iBooks, and Google Books, all of which I’ve read a significant amount with. For I long time I resisted the Kindle hardware because I wasn’t interested in a reflective-only reading surface. The Paperwhite’s backlit screen and low cost made it easy for me to justify buying. I knew I’d use the heck out of it if I got one.

I had a brief stint with iBooks when Apple launched that back in 2010. At the time, the Kindle apps for iOS platforms were seriously lacking in handling the finer details of the reading experience. You couldn’t modify margins or typeset layout, iBooks had better font selection, highlighting and notetaking worked inconsistently, and the brightness controls were poor. But eventually the larger selection available on Kindle and Amazon’s continued feature development in their app brought me back.

Buying the Paperwhite was a great investment. The top reasons are it’s portability, backlit screen, and the battery life.

When I say “portability”, it’s not about comparison to the iPhone (obviously the ultimate in portable, always-with-you reading), but with physical books. Prior to the Kindle, I’d do probably 1/3 of my reading on paper, and that’s now dropped almost to zero1. Even with the leather case I use, it’s so lightweight I can carry it everywhere, and I don’t need to bring paper books with me on trips or airplanes anymore. It’s light enough to be unnoticeable in a backpack, and even small enough to fit in some jacket pockets.

The backlit screen is great and gives the advantage of eInk combined with the ability to use in darkness. The best thing about that screen is the fidelity of brightness control you can get versus an iOS device. In full darkness you can tune down the backlight to nearly zero, still read in the dark and not disturb anyone else. With my iPad, even at the minimum brightness setting it can light up the room if it’s really dark.

The battery life on eInk devices is unbelievable. In two years I’ve probably charged the Kindle a dozen times total. When it’s in standby mode it uses effectively zero power, and even in use (if the backlight’s not turned up) the drain is minimal. I almost forget that it’s electronic at all. In a world where everything seems to need charging, it’s great to have some technology that doesn’t.

I’d be remiss if I didn’t mention the beauty of accessing the massive library of books directly from the device. With a few taps I can have a new book purchased and downloaded, reading it in seconds. Using the iOS version for so long, I’ve missed out on this. Thanks to the Apple IAP policies and Amazon (justifiably) not wanting to share revenue with Apple for book sales, the app is only a reader; there’s no integrated buying experience. I just dealt with this by going out and buying titles through a browser session, but I didn’t realize the smoothness I was missing out on until I had it integrated with the Kindle.

Amazon’s long been an acquirer of other companies, but doesn’t have a great track record of integrations. They bought Audible and Goodreads long ago (2008 and 2013 respectively), both of which I’ve used for years. Only recently have they integrated any of that into the Kindle experience. On their iOS apps they launched a “narration” feature that’ll play back the audio in sync with the pages if you own audio and text versions (a little goofy, but at least they’re integrated). There aren’t many titles I own both audio and text versions of, but the ability to sync progress between the two formats is really nice. On the Goodreads front, the integration there on the Kindle is fantastic. I have access to my “want to read” list right on the home screen for quick access.

With so many devices and quirky pieces of technology, it’s nice to have something reliable and simple that does one job consistently well.

  1. I only read physical books if they aren’t available in e-format, or they’re nonfiction or reference books with heavy use of visuals. 

Weekly Links: AI, APFS, and MBA Mondays

March 30, 2017 • #

Trying out a new thing here to document 3 links that caught my interest over the past week. Sometimes they might be related, sometimes not. It’ll be an experiment to journal the things I was reading at the time, for posterity.

The Arrival of Artificial Intelligence 🔮

Good piece from Ben Thompson comparing the current developmental stage of machine learning and AI with the formative years of Claude Shannon and Alan Turing’s initial discoveries of information theory. They figured out how to take mathematical logic concepts (Boolean logic) and merge them with physical circuits — the birth of the modern computer. With AI we’re on the brink of similar breakthroughs. Thompson does well here to make clear the distinctions between Artificial General Intelligence (what most people think of when they hear the term, things like Skynet) and Narrow Intelligence (which is all we have currently, AIs that can replicate human thinking in a narrow problem set).

The New APFS Filesystem 📱

Apple announced their new APFS file system at last year’s WWDC, and this week launched it as part of the iOS 10.3 update. Their HFS+ file system is now 20 years old, but file systems aren’t something that you change lightly. They’re the core data storage and retrieval engine for computers, and massively complex. APFS is engineered with encryption as a first-class feature and also includes enhancements for SSD-based storage. The most amazing thing to me about this story is the guts it takes to make a seismic change like this to millions of devices in one swoop. It’s the sort of change that is 100% invisible to the average iPhone owner if it works, and could brick millions of phones if it doesn’t. Working in a software company building mission-critical software, it takes serious planning, testing, and skills to deploy risky changes like this to move your platform forward. Kudos to Apple for pulling off such a monumental and thankless change.

Fred Wilson’s MBA Mondays 💼

I’ve read Fred Wilson’s AVC blog for some time, but only through post links that make the rounds. Recently I discovered his archive of “MBA Mondays” articles covering tons of business topics. He’s got pieces on budgeting, cash flow, equity, M&A, unit economics — tons of great stuff from someone learning and practicing all of this in reality. Much more digestible than textbook business school material. I’m gradually making my way through the archive from the beginning and really enjoying it.

Bits & Genes

March 14, 2017 • #

As I started The Gene, I was assuming it’d be framed as a history of genetics. There’s a significant amount of history on the discoveries made the last few centuries as scientists gained an understanding of how hereditary traits are encoded and transmitted. But my favorite parts of the narrative are when Mukherjee seeks to look at the gene as the fundamental building block, making comparisons to bits and atoms.

It reminded me of another book I’d like to revisit: James Gleick’s The Information. That book is to bits what The Gene was to genetics. Claude Shannon’s information theory shares so many parallels with genetics: both required technology to see nanoscopic things, rested on huge amounts of prior knowledge in physics, chemistry, and mathematics, and involved breaking down building blocks into ever more tiny requisite parts. Nearly all of our understanding of each of these sciences was gained since about 1950. We’re only just figuring out the fundamentals of both, and the potential for engineering them to our whims — through advancements in computing and AI on one end and gene splicing and gene therapy on the other. Genes are biological information. So I wonder what the next few decades will look like as the two disciplines start to converge.

Form Defining Function

February 16, 2017 • #

I’m currently reading Siddhartha Mukherjee’s The Gene, a history of the building block of living things. A great read, the right mix of history and discussion of future possibilities like gene manipulation, splicing, and cloning (good or bad).

This bit struck me about the construction of anything, not just living organisms. It’s not the parts, but the relationship between parts that gives a structure its function:

A boat is not made of planks, it’s the relationship between planks. If you hammer a hundred strips on top of each other you get a wall, side to side you get a deck. Only a particular configuration, relationship, and order makes a boat.

Humans and worms have the about the same number of genes (about 20,000), and yet only one of these organisms is capable of painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. This suggests that the number of genes is largely unimportant to the physiological complexity of the organism.

Think about this with genes, bits, or atoms. It’s the same with all building blocks — the right pieces are nothing without the right relationships.

Books of 2016

January 18, 2017 • #

I haven’t done a book roundup in a couple of years. This year was more fiction than non-fiction, and my near-term list will probably continue that trend.

Books of 2016

Annals of the Former World, John McPhee. 1998.

Top of the list for sure was this epic work from John McPhee. I wrote about this one in detail earlier this year. It’s a natural history of North America, told in 4 parts as McPhee travels with renowned geologists across the continent along I-80. Each part features a distinct aspect of geology — the Nevada basin and range, plate tectonics, glaciation and the Ice Age, Rocky Mountain uplifts, erosion in Appalachia, and the volcanism of Yellowstone. It’s an awesome example of narrative non-fiction to explore esoteric subject matter like geology. Couldn’t recommend it highly enough.

Altered Carbon and Broken Angels, Richard K. Morgan. 2002, 2003.

Westworld captured the zeitgeist of TV over the fall of last year. Its timing is just right to capitalize on the paranoia and unknown of what is now no longer science fiction: the development of artificial intelligence we now encounter in everyday life. While Morgan’s Altered Carbon isn’t really about AI specifically (though AIs feature heavily as characters), there are concepts he was writing about in Carbon that fit right in with much of the science as presented in Westworld.

Bay City in Altered Carbon

Morgan wrote a trilogy featuring his antihero protagonist Takeshi Kovacs, a super-trained mercenary soldier in a 25th century future. A foundational concept of this universe is that humans have developed the ability to digitize human consciousness. With mind decoupled from body, people have their consciousness stored in “cortical stacks” installed at the base of their brain, meaning they can transfer between bodies, a process known as “resleeving”.

I’ve read the first two parts of the trilogy so far. Altered Carbon is a hard-boiled detective novel with Kovacs on Earth to help solve the murder of a billionaire “meth” (a “methuselah” is someone rich enough to live forever, endlessly resleeved). Broken Angels is a war novel with Kovacs caught in the midst of a war between a mercenary army and rebel extremists, all the while attempting a heist of an alien spacecraft. I loved both of these books and am already reading part 3. As a fan of William Gibson’s work, I could feel the influence of Neuromancer in style and substance in Morgan’s writing. The novels are chock full of originality and, like all great sci-fi, full of cool technology and political intrigue.

The Pine Barrens, John McPhee. 1978.

Pine Barrens

Another one from McPhee, this one a shorter work about the New Jersey Pine Barrens — a classic example of what makes his writing so compelling. He’s the only non-fiction writer I’ve ever read who could take such a seemingly-bland geography and its inhabitants and create a book that I couldn’t put down. He strikes just the right balance of building characters out of his subjects, describing the uniqueness of the geography, and conveying the importance of the people and places.

Elon Musk: Inventing the Future, Ashlee Vance. 2012.

I don’t read many outright biographies because I think they tend to be too long and focus on too many aspects of the subject I don’t care about. There’s a tendency to put too much emphasis on microscopic events in youth as extremely formative of future goals, decisions, and career moves. This one on super-magnate Elon Musk did a good job spending the majority of the time on Musk’s professional career and steps to where he is now: CEO or otherwise chief influencer of a half dozen companies and initiatives. As a creator of things, I like learning about the step-by-step processes people (or companies) take to reach goals in the face of detractors. In Musk’s case, no one else sets goals and chews away at them like him. “We need to get to Mars to save humanity” is about as Big as it gets when it comes to goal setting.

The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon, Brad Stone. 2013.

Amazon is my favorite company to follow in the tech space these days. Apple and Google do big, cool stuff, but they can’t touch Amazon in disrupting and transforming Old World “physical” industries. From shipping, warehousing, and logistics to datacenter management and (now) artificial intelligence, they’re an awesome example of how taking the long view on a business strategy can win you the market, if you can weather the storms along the way. Somehow Jeff Bezos has been able to woo shareholders into letting him bet big on what seem like insane new ventures with all of Amazon’s earnings each year. It’s part biography and part corporate history, well-researched and thorough in telling the whole story from start to finish.

Stories of Your Life and Others, Ted Chiang. 2002

Stories of Your Life and Others

This collection is 8 diverse works from Ted Chiang, science fiction author and short story specialist. My favorite thing about this collection (I’ve never read any of his work before this) is how wildly different each piece is, and how original they are. Of the 8 pieces, each one of them is one-of-a-kind. Sci-fi tends to be derivative of itself and accretive. It’s rare that I read a sci-fi work where I don’t say “Oh, this is sort of like insert novel here”. First is “Tower of Babylon”, a literalized retelling of the Tower of Babel myth. The fascinating “Seventy-Two Letters” tells of two scientists who discover true names for creating human life. Then there’s “Story of Your Life”, a personal narrative of a linguist telling her daughter’s life story, after her perception of time is changed when she learns an alien language1. That last one’s a tear-jerker.

If you’re looking for something off the beaten path of sci-fi and thought-provoking, check this one out.

Reamde, Neal Stephenson. 2011.

I’ve read a few of Stephenson’s other works, which are always good for an outlandish, mind-bending story. This one fits into the more traditional “technothriller” class, his take on Tom Clancy. Even though it’s a traditionally plotting thriller, he packs it dense with the trademark Stephenson flair. Who else could mix an MMORPG video game, Chinese hackers, Russian mafia, and Islamic terrorists into a single intertwining story?

Countdown to Zero Day, Kim Zetter. 2014.

This is an excellent account of Stuxnet, the computer worm built to sabotage the Iranian nuclear program. The whole story is a terrifying look at the dark side of technology when connected systems are exploited. Not only is it possible to compromise sensitive information at scale, attackers can now effect changes in the physical world by exploiting flaws in industrial control systems. The “Internet of Things” certainly presents an exciting future where any object can be connected to the web, but Stuxnet demonstrates what happens when those connections are twisted with malicious intent.

The Exile Kiss, George Alec Effinger. 1991.

Marid Audran series

A few years back I read parts 1 and 2 of this series, and Exile wraps it up. In the same vein as Altered Carbon or Neuromancer, this series follows Marîd Audran, a hustler and enforcer in an organized crime syndicate. Effinger’s world shows a future where the Middle East is the world’s economic powerhouse, with the West in decline. Audran is framed for the murder of a police officer and stranded with his crime boss in the open desert of the Empty Quarter, and recruit the assistance of a Bedouin tribe to return and exact revenge. A fantastically original work of “cyberpunk” fiction. Read the whole series.

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution, Francis Fukuyama. 2011.

Out of character for me, this was the only history book I read all year, but it was a great one. Fukuyama traces human institutions and social structures from the prehistoric all the way through to modernity, along the way analyzing the aspects that made societies form the way that they did. It’s fascinating to see the influence of geography, religion, biology, and cultural development on how government institutions developed over time. I found the time he spends discussing state structures in China and rule of law in India to be the most interesting bits of this book, since those subjects are largely invisible in civics education in the West. How someone can research and write something so extensive, I have no idea. There’s a second part called Political Order and Political Decay that I’m interested in reading this year.

  1. If this sounds familiar, it was adapted into the 2016 film “Arrival”.